Saturday, March 14, 2015

My View On: The War On Drugs

The 60’s will go down as an era known for heavy drug usage by the young baby boomer generation. Most of the younger folk did it because everyone else was doing them. Some of the most successful baby boomers today will admit to the fact that they tried some form of drug on different occasions (just ask any president we have had in the last 20 years). Marijuana was the drug of choice, but some went beyond what the plant could provide and experimented with psychedelic drugs such as acid and mushrooms. Ask any baby boomer and they will hold very little regret for their actions. They claim it was a phase they went through to express their new age of youth and of course protest against a loose cannon of a government that almost led us into nuclear war. Today’s generation is viewed much differently in the context of drug usage. It is usually the baby boomers that are stereotypical of the millennials when it comes to drugs. Marijuana users are viewed as “stoners” and those that use more powerful synthetic drugs are “junkies”. These modern day judgments spring from the so called “war on drugs” that our government has been waging the last 50 years. The ongoing campaign funded by billions of tax payer dollars has been making drug users out to be the bad guy, regardless of the type and quantity of drug they use. All of this has been happening while the corporate funded prescription drug trade has been growing exponentially with no oversight in its effects on people.

The so called war on drugs has criminalized and incarcerated more people than any other crime in the history of man. Our prisons, local jails, and probation system are clogged up with drug offenders and so called traffickers. The war on drugs lay claim that the high level of incarceration and probation monitoring is necessary for the safety of the American people. The inner city black guy doing 3 years for a few grams of cocaine is considered a danger to people around him. The college kid caught with 5lbs of marijuana was “trafficking” the drug and is being kept off the streets from selling such a dangerous plant to high school kids. The truth of the matter is the war on drugs is far from a war, but rather a scheme in place to keep police, lawyers, judges, and ultimately the corporate driven prison industrial complex in place and running strong. Think about it – if not for the war on drugs millions would lose their jobs. There would be no need for so many police and corrections officers. The courts would need to cut their case load in half. Government employed case workers and drug rehabilitation centers would be out of work.

Are drugs bad? According to the war on drugs that question is simple to answer as it will always be a resounding ‘Yes’. But the mass of people who use drugs recreationally function normally in society. They hold jobs and raise a family. There are those who abuse drugs and clearly have issues that need to be addressed. There are also those that use and sell drugs that are associated with other high crime activities and gang involvement. But for the most part, the majority of drug users are doing no harm to others or themselves. The popular drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine, are generally used recreationally and pose no risk to others in society by those that use them. Their affects are on par with that of alcohol, which itself can lead to abuse issues, yet there is no “war on alcohol”. Someone caught with a stash of drugs is automatically guilty and made a felon by the state. That person becomes one more statistic for the suit and tie politicians to use as an example that their war on drugs is working. Little do they care that they just ruined someone’s life over a product grown from the very earth we stand on. They have no proof that they saved anyone from harm or that they made society safer to be in. All they can stand there and say is that they made another criminal out of someone and that there is one more body that can fill their prison system.

The worse types of drugs happen to be the ones most can acquire legally. The prescription drug market is fueled by big insurance and pharmaceutical companies with very little government regulation. Thousands of different drugs are being thrown at people, some with serious side effects. A lot of these drugs are also very addictive, way beyond that of any street drug. People are hooked on these drugs and doctors continue to write prescriptions for them, all while being pushed by greedy corporations and ignored by the government. There is no war on these type of drugs. The government claims they monitor the actions of the companies producing these drugs and are aware of the consequences of some of their products. The FDA is a puppet organization that claims to exist for the safety of people, yet allow very addictive mind altering drugs to be released to the market with no explanation for the end consequences. They allow drugs with a side effect list that spans multiple pages to slip through the cracks. Yet our government spends ridiculous amounts of our tax dollars on some war on drugs to stop people from using recreation drugs that mostly come from plants and have very little side effects. It is all a farce.

Many states are waking up to the possibility that marijuana could simply be legalized and no more people would be incriminated from using it. But there is a very big catch to this new found idea. The states see legalizing marijuana as a way of making more money than incriminating people ever will. The states will simply control the distribution of marijuana and tax every ounce that a person buys. There of course would still be consequences if someone were to continue to grow their own. In the end it is still a win-win situation for the states, while recreational users will have to pay much more than what they currently pay. Drugs will always be an attack vector for government to not only criminalize people, but to squeeze them for every cent they can. They know drugs, like any other thing in life that people can get attached to, are a way to gouge people because they know they will always want and need them. I say we continue to fight against this war and let them lose.

My View On: Taxes

After the Revolution, Americans embraced a new country that was created on the basis of small government. As such, the need to tax the people never became an issue, the federal government made enough income from land sales and tariffs to operate. As the country grew, so did it's infrastructure, which was mostly privately owned. The development of the automobile fueled a revolution in the creation of roads and bridges across America. As the automobile boomed in popularity it became apparent that dirt roads running across a back 40 were no longer plausible. The state and local governments took on the responsibility of building and maintaining the new paved roads. At first the solution to pay for these roads would be to charge those that use them, but that became very cumbersome. In the end the people agreed that taxation at the local level was the best solution. Taxation is a necessary evil for the expansion and maintenance of infrastructure that the public use, but have become more of a revenue for public governments that have out of control spending.

The federal government operated with very little cost for many years following the revolution. It was not until the new founded need to go to war arose that the federal government started to triple in size year after year. The law makers new that the current source of revenue was not enough to fund the government. The income tax was the solution put on the people. It was not well received and came with many false promises. The income tax is still in operation today and brings in billions of dollars to keep our bloated government running. From the local all the way up to the federal level, taxes continually rise year after year. It is very rare to see a tax bill fall in a new year. Some states even implemented tax caps to attempt to keep themselves from increasing taxes too much in a new year.

People don’t realize how much of their income actually goes toward some form of tax on them. They look at income and property taxes exclusively because they tend to be the largest. There are taxes people pay that they do not even know exist. To describe just how much we get taxed it is best to walk through a normal day to day routine of the average person. A person will get up to prepare to work an 8hr day, 3 hours of which go toward state and federal income taxes (if you live in a state with income tax). They will drive to work on roads that are funded by some form of property tax. Their car runs on fuel that costs up to 30 cents per gallon in just taxes. The vehicle itself was taxed upon purchase. The insurance company charges a tax for “law enforcement and safety”. The lunch you bought at a fast food joint was taxed and the people who made it were also taxed for their work. The provider of the cell phone you just used attaches multiple different state and federal taxes to the bill. Stopped and got beer after work? There is an alcohol tax imposed. Craved a cigarette? Over half the pack was state imposed taxes. After a long day of work and paying taxes you decide to sit back and watch some television. There is a tax attached to the cable bill every month. The athletes and actors pay millions in taxes. The networks also pay in to taxes. Cannot forget about the corporate sponsors, they too pay taxes. As you turn in for the night you click off that light that draws power and you probably already guessed it, there is a tax on that as well. I am positive I missed a few different sources of taxation. But you get the gist!

Taxes have went from a necessary income source to fund infrastructure to a pot of money that governments of all different sizes dip into and spend uncontrollably. One solution is to pass a law that requires a certain percentage drop in taxes each year for a set period of time. Unfortunately politicians don’t even have a spine to implement such measures. The only other solution is a total economic collapse where all levels of government are absolved. This solution is looking to be where we are headed.

Wednesday, November 5, 2014


There will be more people attending and watching NFL football games this Sunday than the total number who went to vote on Election Day. There will be more people who will get up at the crack of dawn and go shopping on “black Friday” than those who got up and voted. This is the new reality we live in America. Americans much rather enjoy their entertainment and spend money they do not have than go do the one deed that the founders fought so hard to establish. Voting is, or should I say was, the most American thing one could do. We wake up every day in the greatest country known to man and we have a choice regarding who represents us to keep it that way. But we have swayed so much off the beaten path that voting is considered a waste of time because of the system of political parties that are in place. Many people simply do not vote because they feel all politicians are the same and do nothing to represent them. Unfortunately this logic is what political parties want you believe. Low voter turnout paired with political party followers who do vote are the deciding factor in modern elections. I am here to tell you that if you do not vote you are doing more bad than good.

“Voting is a waste of time” is a common answer I get when I ask my fellow citizens if they voted. Their reasoning is sound when you consider political parties have been the downfall to our system for a long time now. But what gets me is the lack of understanding people have when it comes to voting. They are brainwashed into thinking they only have two choices. They believe that when they go to the ballot box they are forced to choose a ‘D’ or an ‘R’. But it makes sense when you consider the commercials and advertising is all focused around two people that continually bash one another. Millions of dollars from big corporations and rich donors are poured into the two party candidates. What people are missing is the exposure of the so called “third party” candidates who are also running for election and whose names will be on the ballot. These candidates are everyday people like the rest of us. They are not mega rich elites who are backed by a big corporation with their own interests. They work normal jobs and live normal lives. They run because they are like the rest of us and want to change things to better us, not corporations and governments. 

I have given up on the two party system years ago. I have always supported a “third party” candidate and will continue to do so as long as I can get out and vote. But it amazes me that those that vote with the status quo view me as an enemy. Both sides hate me because I am supposedly taking away votes from their candidate. I do not vote a “third party” candidate because I am trying to sway an election. I choose not to vote for someone who is the lesser of two evils. I used to be a Republican, but since the Republican Party has shifted away from their Conservative roots, they are no different than the Democrats they run against. Essentially both parties are the same and share a common interest in being in it for themselves and their corporate donors. They have no interest in helping us little people who continue to lose on a daily basis. I have supported Libertarian candidates for many years now. Again, the Libertarians share my beliefs and I vote for them for that reason, not to take votes away from either of the two party candidates. Do I support everything a Libertarian candidate may represent? Of course not, but at least they stick to their beliefs and not change because some big money donor influences their interests. The same goes for other “third party” candidates. I do not support the Green party because they tend to be very left swing socialist for my taste, but I respect someone who votes for them over some two party sellout. 

I cannot tell someone they have a duty to go out and vote (even though they do). But I will do my best to educate people on the election process and to show they truly do have a choice. There are a lot of good people who run for election that consider it a blessing to even get a few thousand votes when it is all said and done. But it is us that can give them the votes to win. The average American adult male can name most of the players on their favorite football team, but not be able to name all of the candidates on their town’s ballot. They know their team because they watch it every weekend. So how do we get them to know their candidates? Well they should use the power of the internet, but unfortunately that may not strike their interest. I fault the media for this problem more than anything. They focus on the big name candidates and constantly air their commercials, yet leave out the good guys. I hope someday our own law makers can change our election system to be fair for all candidates. A system where there is a cap on the amount of money each candidate has, or better yet equal share amongst all. A system where debates are required whereby all candidates have an equal say on their goals. Where they can sell themselves to the American voters. A system where no matter how rich a candidate is or how much corporate interest they may spark, they have no more of an advantage over anyone else. But for now it is up to us to find the good guys on our own. Unfortunately as we are forced to continue to do that the two party system will continue to dominate.

Sunday, February 21, 2010

Stop Counting Reps

I have never been the type of person that follows the status quo of things. I always like to add my own little twist to what is considered the normal way of doing things. It seems with working out there is this notion that everything has to be based around a fixed number of reps broken up into a fixed number of sets. I have a problem with that logic and decided to add my own little twist.

The average person who gives a damn about their physique walks into the gym with a plan. That plan is surely based around doing some number of reps broken up into sets. For example, a common workout plan for someone attempting to gain strength might be doing high to low rep pyramids. Pyramids usually work by doing 5 sets of each exercise in the following fashion: 15 x 1, 12 x 1, 8 x 1, 6 x 1, 3 x 1. For each set the weight is increased to the point where the desired number of reps can be accomplished. So for the first set a weight is used for 15 reps and then for the next set a weight is used for 12 reps, and so on. Some other popular schemes are 5x12 (5 sets of 12) or 8x5 (8 sets of 5), again a weight is chosen based on the desired number of reps to be completed. Does anyone see a problem with this? I sure do. Arnold Schwarzenegger once said “The last three or four reps is what makes the muscle grow…” it couldn’t have been said any better. When you are pumping a weight and you get down to the last few reps and you start to struggle, that’s where the muscle is being stimulated. The problem is most people never really get to that point or maybe only feel it on the very last rep, why? People stop on that last rep because they are finished. If you are doing an 8x5 and you are on that 5th rep, you are done and the weight gets dropped. But who is to say that you couldn’t have done 2 more reps, even if it meant struggling to complete them? After all those last 2 extra reps would have fit right into Arnold’s logic and therefore stimulated more muscle growth.

My point is quite simple – stop counting reps. If you are lifting for strength (heavy) then plan out a number of sets (3-6) that you want to do and then find a heavy weight. For each set keep pushing that weight until you absolutely cannot complete another rep or your form goes right down the tubes. For example, with the bench press you have to load that bar and pump it until you cannot get that weight up to lockout. Of course that means you will need either a spotter to rack it for you or use safety pins in a squat rack. The same logic can be used for endurance lifting (light), grab a light weight and keep lifting it until your muscle fatigues and you cannot lift it anymore. The number of reps completed in each set will vary, usually you will complete more in the beginning than in the end. As a matter of fact you may not be able to complete what used to be your max target rep by the last set because the muscle is so stimulated. The weights you choose will most likely fit in a rep range and that is important to keep noted. For example, you will want a weight that fits in a 3-8 rep range when lifting for strength on an 8 set program. This means during any one of the 8 sets you may complete up to 8 reps or may only complete 3 reps, again the number of completed reps usually falls for every set.
If you are tired of the old age set x rep scheme, then spice it up a little. Grab a weight, find out how many total sets you want to accomplish, then lift that weight until it cannot be lifted anymore, and repeat. I still think sets are important because they let you set goals, but they do not have to be set in stone. If you feel 5 sets are not enough, then up it. There will come a point when you may hit a number of sets where you find you cannot lift the weight much anymore. That is where having a rep range comes in. If you find you are not completing the minimum number of reps per set, then that is a sign you have had enough. It may be 5 sets or it may be 10, it all depends on how hard you really work per each set. My bets are if you are lifting heavy and really are hitting failure per each set, then you will complete about 5 total sets and call it a day. Happy lifting.

Arnold never followed the traditional set x rep, and look at him

Tuesday, December 22, 2009

Tabata Method

It’s that time again – the time where everyone begins to transition into a new year. Odds are a lot of people are using the New Year as an excuse to “get into shape”. I quote that because most people really have no clue what getting into shape really means, but I will save that for another blog. Anyway, I don’t mind spending a few minutes of my time throwing together some tips and tricks that I hope at least one person picks up on. I aim low for the number of successful followers because most people just tend to fail a couple months into the New Year. It isn’t because the program sucks but more that the individual just gives up.

In the years past I introduced High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) as a tool to burn fat. I also introduced training intensities and their effect on resting metabolism (EPOC). This year I want to introduce you guys to the Tabata Method. Tabata is not a new form of training, instead it is an adaption of HIIT, but much more effective in less time. With that being said, Tabata is much more intense and difficult. Most wouldn’t even believe that it was possible to have an exercise program more intense than HIIT, but there is. The key lies in tweaking the rest intervals and lowering the total time to complete the exercise(s). This is by far not a method for beginners (either is HIIT though), but can be done with some adaption. It is also not for someone that is obese or 20lbs overweight. It works for those that want to shed “some extra” baggage. With Tabata you take an exercise and do as many reps as possible for 20 seconds, you then rest 10 seconds, and repeat. This is repeated 8 times. The total time to complete an 8 set Tabata exercise is 4 minutes. By the end of the 4 minute period (if you make it) your heart will beat even faster than it does with HIIT exercises. Welcome to the world of the Tabata Method!

Tabata can be done on cardio machines just as well. Pick your favorite cardio machine and warm up on it (stretch beforehand). Just before the 5 minute mark, set the intensity to a moderately difficult setting. As soon as the 5 minute mark hits explode with intensity until 5:20, rest till 5:30, and then repeat. By the 9 minute mark you would have completed 8 sets of Tabata and probably laying on the floor. If you are using the treadmill then you can just step off for the 10 seconds and jump back on when ready. It works well with bikes, elliptical, and pretty much any other machine. If machines aren’t your thing then go outside and do Tabata sprints.

With weight training, Tabata can be done with just one exercise. Pick a weight that you can normally do 20-25 reps / set with and do as many as you can in 20 seconds. The best exercises to do with Tabata are the ones that use the most muscle, such as squats, cleans, and deadlifts. You can also mix Tabata with complexes and perform 8 exercises with a loaded barbell. Basically you perform as many reps for an exercise as possible in 20 seconds, position weight for next exercise and rest 10 seconds, then repeat. This is essentially the same as a complex except there are more exercises, reps, and of course there is a 10 second rest.

Tabata can be adjusted for those that may start to get accustomed to it or that demand more from it. As long as you follow the principle of 20 second reps with 10 second rest, you can do whatever you want. You can take the total sets completed from 8 to however many you desire. You can also do multiple Tabata sessions in one. I like to do 8 sets of Tabata, slow down pace and rest for 5 minutes, and then complete another 8 sets. However you decide to tweak your total sets, try to keep the total time even. For example, we know that 8 sets totals 4 minutes, so if you up the total sets to 10, then you now have a 5 minute Tabata session. By now you have probably figured out that 1 minute gets added for every 2 sets.

Tabata was designed to be a very simple yet effective method to burn fat. With the simplicity and effectiveness comes very difficult and painful routines, even if done in 4 minutes. It takes HIIT one step further by essentially keeping the heart rate constantly elevated. The 20 second high intensity exercise followed by the 10 second rest was found to allow the body just enough recovery, yet keep the heart elevated to almost maximum levels, but only for so long. It would be impossible if you tried a high intensity exercise for 4 minutes straight, yet Tabata is about as effective as doing so. By doing 3-4 Tabata sessions per week you will keep your metabolism elevated and see the fat burning.

Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Exercise and Intensity for Fat Loss

The average non-welfare bum American works a 40 hour week or goes to school 20-30 hours a week. After it’s all said and done the same average American will watch 2 hours of television and spend another 2 hours on the computer, per day. That all boils down to 12 hours of a 24-hour day devoted to basically sitting on your ass (that is if you work at an office setting). Somewhere in the batch of statistics there is the average amount of time one spends per week exercising and that is – 3 hours. That equals a little over a half an hour per day devoted to physical health. A sad but true figure indeed.

We all know fat loss comes in two main parts – nutrition and physical exercise. There are a lot of resources available for both to get one on the correct route to fat loss. The problem is things tend to get complex as you hit plateaus and aim for lower and lower fat percentages. An obese person can lose fat by just making small changes to their diet and walking briskly. For someone who has a “few extra pounds,” there is a lot more to it. I think one area where people get confused is with exercises intensity. There are many classes of intensity such as endurance, HIIT, and aerobic exercise. Many people face the problem with how to implement all the different types and if any specific one is right for them. Finally one can assess the intensity of the exercises to perform based on the time they have available. Now that explains why I started this talk on the subject of time.

Alywn Cosgrove, one of the best personal trainers in the fitness industry, wrote about this exact subject a couple years ago. It never really caught on in the fitness industry unfortunately. The concept of intensity is directly related to post exercise metabolic affect a person achieves. It is quite easy really, the higher the intensity one exercises at, the higher the metabolic affect that is achieved and for a longer period of time. High endurance exercises will result in an elevated metabolism for up to 32 hours following. Lower intensity exercises may only result in an elevated metabolism for 2-3 hours. With an elevated metabolism one will effectively burn more calories while resting. This increase in metabolism is sometimes referred to as EPOC (Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption). With the increase in metabolism and proper dieting one will burn more calories and therefore burn fat much quicker.

I could end this talk here but I decided to mirror Cosgrove’s article a bit and talk about the 5 intensities of exercise and how you can fit them in with the time you have. These are priority based, which means if you only have a certain amount of time per week to exercises then you do the top intensities. The minimum amount of time required per week is 3 hours, recommended amount is 5 hours, suggested amount should really be at least 8 hours (come on people that is a mere 1.5 hours per day). Once you find the time you can devote and know that you can stick with it, follow the 5 phases in the order given.

Phase 1 (Endurance Training): 3 hours a week will be required to do endurance training. The training is in the form of high rep weight training in the 8-12 rep range. It is best to choose 4-6 different exercises that will target large muscle groups and do them in a circuit (one exercises followed by another). One set is complete when all exercises were done without rest. You will feel your heart ready to blow out of your chest. You can do 2-day splits per week or break down each muscle group into 3 days. This phase will keep your EPOC elevated for over 24 hours.

Phase 2 (HIIT): You will need another 2 hours per week to total 5 hours to do HIIT. HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training) is usually done outside of the gym. The best HIIT exercises are sprinting, bike sprinting, swim sprinting, or any other type of sprinting you can do. You start gradually and explode for a short distance (100m or so for sprinting). These exercises should be done on your off days from doing the endurance training for obvious reasons. Try to span them out over 3 days (weekends can also be included in a week of training). You need only 2 extra hours due to the intensity of the exercises. Expect your EPOC to go for another 24 hours. (Note: It is best to do these not only on opposite days of Phase 1, but also opposite times as well. That means if you workout Monday morning, then do the HIIT Tuesday afternoon).

Phase 3 (High Intensity Aerobic Exercising): These exercises require another 2 hours of your precious time to total 7 hours per week. You do these types of exercises in the gym usually following your Phase 1 workouts. You could also do them at the opposite time of doing a Phase 1, so if you do Phase 1 in the morning you can do Phase 3 in the evening. These exercises are done at a steady high intensity pace over time or they can be done in intervals much like Phase 2. Such exercises include running (not jogging) on the treadmill, high intensity elliptical, or the spin bike on a high resistance. Outside exercises include tennis, volleyball, basketball, etc (sorry golf doesn’t count, you got to be sweating like a pig). You should focus on doing 30-45 minutes at a high pace (heart rate above 130bpm) for at least 2 days a week (or however many days you do your Phase 1 training).

Phase 4 (Steady State Aerobic Exercising): These exercises will require another 1-2 hours of time in the week to do. These exercises are lower intensity (heart rate between 80-100bpm) and really do not increase EPOC. They do create a calorie deficit so can be useful to help balance out daily calories (if you are one who counts them). These exercises include the same things you can do in Phase 4, except you are at a lower intensity (jogging instead of running). You can squeeze these in before doing a Phase 1 as they will also help warm the muscles up. This phase is really not required for a proper fat loss plan, but hey if you have the time you mind as well do it for added results.

Phase 5 (Low Intensity Aerobic Exercising): These exercises can eat up another 1-2 hours depending on how and where you do them. They are best outside the gym as you will probably be spending enough time there as it is. These exercises can be moderate paced walks, bike rides, and swims. You can include walking your dog as time spent doing Phase 5 exercising. Again, this phase is not required for a proper fat loss plan, but since you are out moving and burning calories, it will help.
There you have it – your questions on the topic of how to exercise to lose fat answered. Drop the time you spending watching TV and using the computer and get active! Below are scenarios set up for those that can spare 3, 5, or 8 hours a week and the type of exercises they can do.

3 Hours: Do Phase 1 M,W,F one hour each day working entire body through the week.

5 Hours: Do Phase 1 M, W, F one hour each day working entire body through the week. Do Phase 2 T, Th one hour each day with a different exercise each day (don’t do sprinting two days in a row).

8 Hours: Do Phase 1 M, W, F one hour each day working entire body through the week. Do Phase 2 T, Th one hour each day with a different exercise each day. Following Phase 1 workouts on M,W,F do 30-45 minutes of Phase 3 with a different exercise each day. Go for a jog/bike ride (or Jog on the treadmill while watching TV) in the evening (if you workout in the morning, else do it in the morning if you workout in the evening) for 30-45 minutes on M,W (you could also do Phase 4 T, Th morning/evening depending on when you do Phase 2. Also, don’t forget about Saturday and Sunday).

Friday, July 17, 2009

The 10 Commandments to Weight Loss & A Healthy Life

Dr. Gary Taubes, author of the world famous book "Good Calories, Bad Calories," has finally uncovered the real reason as to why 1/3 of Americans are obese and another 1/3 are overweight. While I recommend reading the book it really is not for the faint of heart. It is suggested that one have a pretty decent background in nutrition and body chemistry before diving into this book. If you understand lipogenesis, insulin, hypoglycemia, diabetes, etc, then by all means start reading. To make life easier on everyone I decided to take an excerpt from the book. This excerpt sums the entire book up in 10 easy to read conclusions by Dr. Taubes based on all his research. Let this be your 10 Commandments to weight loss and living a healthy life. Follow them and follow them well. Here it goes...

1. Dietary fat, whether saturated or not, is not a cause of obesity, heart disease, or any other chronic disease of civilization.

2. The problem is the carbohydrates in the diet, their effect on insulin secretion, and thus the hormonal regulation of homeostasis—the entire harmonic ensemble of the human body. The more easily digestible and refined the carbohydrates, the greater the effect on our health, weight, and well-being.

3. Sugars—sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup specifically—are particularly harmful, probably because the combination of fructose and glucose simultaneously elevates insulin levels while overloading the liver with carbohydrates.

4. Through their direct effect on insulin and blood sugar, refined carbohydrates, starches, and sugars are the dietary cause of coronary heart disease and diabetes. They are the most likely dietary causes of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and the other chronic diseases of civilization.

5. Obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation, not overeating, and not sedentary behavior.

6. Consuming excess calories does not cause us to grow fatter, any more than it causes a child to grow taller. Expending more energy than we consume does not lead to long term weight loss; it leads to hunger.

7. Fattening and obesity are caused by an imbalance—a disequilibrium—in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue and fat metabolism. Fat synthesis and storage exceed the mobilization of fat from the adipose tissue and its subsequent oxidation. We become leaner when the hormonal regulation of the fat tissue reverses this balance.

8. Insulin is the primary regulator of fat storage. When insulin levels are elevated—either chronically or after a meal—we accumulate fat in our fat tissue. When insulin levels fall, we release fat from our fat tissue and use it for fuel.

9. By stimulating insulin secretion, carbohydrates make us fat and ultimately cause obesity. The fewer carbohydrates we consume, the leaner we will be.

By driving fat accumulation, carbohydrates also increase hunger and decrease the amount of energy we expend in metabolism and physical activity.

Stop eating carbs fatty